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Sunday, November 11, 2012

Honor their sacrifice resolving never again

Rising from a new ethos ─ Another world is possible, A changed U.S. is imperative Commentary, editing by
Carolyn Bennett

oday in 1921 was the first remembrance of the end to World War I: Armistice Day commemorated with the burials of unknown soldiers in tombs in Paris, France, London, England, Arlington, Virginia (suburb of U.S. capital)

This international carnage from 1914 to 1918 involved most of the nations of Europe together with Russia, the United States, the Middle East, and other regions.

Unburied soldier
World War I
Left dead were almost 10 million military personnel: an estimated 8,500,000 soldiers died from their wounds and or disease. The greatest number of casualties and wounds were inflicted by artillery, small arms, and poison gas.

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
The precise count of military and civilian losses is uncertain. At the time of this war, there were no agencies established to keep casualty records but displacement of peoples through the movement of the war in Europe and in Asia Minor ─ accompanied by the most destructive outbreak of influenza in history ─ led to unspeakably large numbers of military and civilian deaths.

The number of civilian deaths attributable to World War I has been estimated at levels exceeding military casualties: more than 10 million, around 13,000,000.

Civilians died largely from starvation, exposure, disease, military encounters, and massacres.

Lincoln at Gettysburg
 …It is for us to be dedicated to the great task remaining before us ─ that from these honored dead we take increased devotion …

We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation … shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth. ─ Editorial liberty with Lincoln’s November 19, 1863 Gettysburg Address
American Civil War dead

he day will come, I hope, when leaders, priests and preachers will no longer murder the young of our nation or of any nation and peoples.

The day will come, I hope, when men (and men-like women) will no longer rape and ruin, plunder and impoverish, trample and tear apart laws and lands, planets, rights and justice, indeed the lives of millions for private gain and short-term pleasure.
U.S. NATO - slaughtered

The day will come, I hope, when we will rise from knees of indifference and acquisition and stand as strong as our flag, as strong as Lincoln’s words, stand for the common good, for rights and justice of all.

I pledge allegiance to this flag and to the Republic for which it stands ─ one nation indivisible with liberty and justice for all.  Editorial liberty with the pledge

ising from a new ethos ─ Another world is possible, A changed U.S. is imperative

Why not pledge allegiance to a new ethos.

Sources and notes

Gettysburg Address

The Gettysburg Address in full and unedited text is widely quoted, praised and recognized as one of the classic utterances of all time, a masterpiece of prose poetry.

This world-famous speech was delivered by America’s seventeenth head of state, President Abraham Lincoln, at the dedication (November 19, 1863) of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the site of one of the decisive battles (July 1–3, 1863) of the American Civil War.

Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address delivered November 19, 1863, American Rhetoric, Online Speech Bank, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/gettysburgaddress.htm

See also: Gettysburg Address.  (2011). Encyclopedia  Britannica. Encyclopedia  Britannica Deluxe Edition.  Chicago: Encyclopedia  Britannica.

Pledge Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America

First published in the juvenile periodical The Youth’s Companion on September 8, 1892, in the following form:

I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and Justice for all.

In 1924, the words “the flag of the United States of America” were substituted for “my Flag”

In 1942, the pledge was officially recognized by the U.S. government.
In 1943, the United States Supreme Court ruled that no person can be required to recite the pledge.

In 1954, at the urging of the thirty-fourth president, President Dwight David Eisenhower, the U.S. Congress legislated that “under God” be inserted, making the pledge read:

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

In the 1954 legislation citizens were urged to stand upright and place the right hand over the heart while reciting the pledge. Men not in uniform should remove any nonreligious head covering.

Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America.  (2011). Encyclopedia  Britannica. Encyclopedia  Britannica Deluxe Edition.  Chicago: Encyclopedia  Britannica.

Stars and Stripes, Old Glory

As with many other national flags, the Stars and Stripes have long been a focus of patriotic sentiment.

From 1777 to 1960 (after the admission of Hawaii in 1959), there were 27 versions of the U.S. flag—25 involving changes in the stars only. An executive order of October 29, 1912, standardized the proportions and relative sizes of the elements of the flag; in 1934 the exact shades of color were standardized.

Millions of U.S. children have traditionally recited the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag at the start of each school day, and the lyrics of the national anthem are also concerned with the flag. Some veterans’ groups have pressured legislators to adopt laws or a constitutional amendment prohibiting flag desecration, but such legislation has been opposed on the grounds that it would infringe on the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of expression.

ld Glory (1862): the flag of the U.S.

The United States Flag is called Stars and Stripes, Old Glory, or Star-Spangled Banner flag

The U.S. national flag consists of white stars (50 since July 4, 1960) on a blue canton (top inner quarter of flag) with a field of 13 alternating stripes (7 red, 6 white). The 50 stars stand for the 50 states of the Union. The 13 stripes stand for the original 13 states (colonies). The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 10 to 19.

Confederate Flag

During the American Civil War, the Confederate States of America began to use its first flag, the Stars and Bars, on March 5, 1861. Soon after, the first Confederate Battle Flag was also flown. The design of the Stars and Bars varied over the following two years.

On May 1, 1863, the Confederacy adopted its first official national flag, often called the Stainless Banner. A modification of that design was adopted on March 4, 1865, about a month before the end of the war.

In the latter part of the 20th century, many groups in the South challenged the practice of flying the Confederate Battle Flag on public buildings, including some state capitols. Proponents of the tradition argued that the flag recalled Southern heritage and wartime sacrifice, whereas opponents saw it as a symbol of racism and slavery, inappropriate for official display.

Whitney Smith: United States of America, flag of the. (2011). Encyclopedia  Britannica. Encyclopedia  Britannica Deluxe Edition.  Chicago: Encyclopedia  Britannica.

World War I.  (2011). Encyclopedia  Britannica. Encyclopedia  Britannica Deluxe Edition.  Chicago: Encyclopedia  Britannica.


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